Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) is an emerging therapy for refractory cardiac arrest. The purpose of this study was to analyze and report characteristics and outcomes of adult patients treated with ECPR after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in a large international registry.
The Extracorporeal Life Support Organization’s Extracorporeal Life Support Registry was queried for adult cardiac arrests with arrest location of “EMT Transport” or “Outside Hospital.”
From 2010 to 2016, 217 cases of ECPR following OHCA were reported in Europe (47%), Asia-Pacific (29%), and North America (24%). The median age was 52 years (IQR 45-62, range 18-87); 73% were male. The median duration of ECPR was 47 hours (IQR 17-94, range 0-711). Reported complications included hemorrhage (31.3%), limb complications (11.1%), circuit complications (8.8%), infection (7.4%), and seizures (5.5%). The rate of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was higher in Europe (35.6%) and Asia-Pacific (25.8%) than North America (9.4%; p < 0.01). Survival to hospital discharge was 27.6% (95%CI 22.1-34.0%), and male gender was independently associated with mortality (adjusted odds ratio 2.1 [95%CI 1.1-4.2], p<0.05). Survival did not differ by region, race, age, or year. Brain death was reported in 16.6% [95%CI 12.2-22.1%]; organ donation rate was not reported.
This international analysis of ECPR for refractory OHCA reveals a survival rate of 27.6%, demonstrates association of male gender with mortality, and highlights regional differences in PCI utilization. These results will help inform implementation and research of this potentially life-saving strategy for refractory OHCA.